Prajnaparamita means ‘perfection of wisdom’ in Sanskrit. InBuddhism the concept refers to a state of mind which results from understanding the true nature of things. It is this perfection that distinguishes a . It includes the ultimate knowledge about what things really are, as opposed to what they appear to be. This insight is explained in a body of texts called the Prajnaparamita , which mark the rise of Mahayana Buddhism. Apart from prajna (wisdom), they also discuss the concepts of bodhisattva and . The perfection of wisdom is embodied by the goddess Prajnaparamita. She is usually depicted showing the teaching , with a in her hand and a book on top of it.