Doctrines and rituals

Recitation (Lat. recitatio, ‘reading aloud’) refers to the spoken rendering of a text. In Buddhism, the rhythmic rendering or chanting of a text, aloud or in silence, is an important ritual practice that serves various purposes. For instance, it is a way of learning a text by heart or passing it on by word of mouth. But recitation also serves as an exercise in meditation. Moreover, believers can ask the deities for support by reciting ritual invocations.