Large numbers of illustratedsuch as this were produced in China. The cost of producing them was often borne by who then distributed them for free at their local temple.
This pamphlet contains invocations to, the of . texts like these was thought to be extremely effective: it protected a devotee from harm and , could cure illness, and result in many children. Anecdotes about the miraculous effects of reciting these texts boosted the production of these pamphlets in China, particularly during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).